➱ [Read] ➬ Das Unbehagen in der Kultur By Sigmund Freud ➼ – 91videos.co

Undoubtedly, Sigmund Freud is a classic Consequently, he shares the fate of any classic everybody knows of and few read him any After all, what is to discover we didn t already learn That he explained every evil or deviation in human behaviour by some repressed sexual urges generated mainly by the Oedipal complex That he founded the science of psychoanalysis, but many of his theories and methods are obsolete today That he influenced the Modernist movement, especially regarding some famous techniques such as introspection, psychological analysis, stream of consciousness, involuntary memory and so on Things we learnt in school, while studying or less some excerpts of his books But when you finally make up your mind and read it, you realize he is definitely worth it That he is always relevant, no way a mere fossil frozen in time to remind of obsolete periods in our culture.In this context, Civilization and Its Discontents is a revelation Its main theme civilization as a source of unhappiness for the individual, is not new Rousseau s good savage comes easily to mind, not to say that it is a problem debated since antiquity , but the development he chose to give it is seductive and pertinent The premise is simple and difficult to argue withwhat decides the purpose of life is simply the programme of the pleasure principle.This pursuit of happiness is prevented by at least three factors our own body, the external world and our relations with the others Therefore, whenever life becomes too hard to bear, man resorts to palliative measures powerful deflections, which cause us to make light of our misery substitutive satisfactions, which diminish it intoxicating substances, which make us insensitive to it An example of deflection could be the scientific activity Art, with its refugee in the phantasy can act as a substitute Drugs, alcohol etc as an anaesthetic But why is man unhappy with himself and the world Because, Freud says, man is basically an aggressive being whom civilization keeps in check through two weapons Ananke and Eros, that is, the compulsion to work, which was created by external necessity, and the power of love However, the love instinct used by the society to keep its members together is counteracted by the aggressive instinct I liked, even I wasn t convinced of, the reference to the Oedipal complex as illustration for this problem the aggressive instinct dictates the killing of the father, whereas the love instinct stops it The struggle between Eros and Thanatos with the continual repression of the death instinct dictated by society leads to a sense of guilt which, although the most important problem in the development of civilization bringing with it the loss of happiness, usually remains in subconscious, being experienced rather as a sort of malaise, of anxiety Moreover, the super ego, which is the consciousness, penalizes the ego either with remorse or guilt, for sins committed or only thought of The book ends with two presumptions on one hand that beside an individual super ego there could also be a cultural super ego , thus viewing the society as a huge organism that developed its own consciousness, and on the other hand, that the battle between Eros and Thanatos is not only eternal but also unpredictable, thus throwing a pessimist shadow over the future And he was unfortunately right The World War II was just around the corner. This may come as a surprise considering how much I complain about psychotherapy, but I LOVE SIGMUND FREUD This is not just transference, and no, he doesn t remind me at all of my father I believe Freud was a great genius, and far importantly, that he was a fantastic writer and very interesting person I also believe that Freud is one of the most unfairly maligned and willfully misinterpreted figures of the past hundred or so years.If you haven t read him HIM, not his theories , or if you have but your mind was so full of distracting, disparaging thoughts about how he was a sexist pig or whatever that you couldn t concentrate, I encourage you to go back and read him again He s a lot of fun, extremely interesting, and surprisingly humorous check out his short piece on jokes for a good time This book here explores dark themes and ends on a somber note, as one might expect of a European book about civilization written in 1931 Anyway, if I were to stay up all night long talking and doing lines with any figure, alive or dead, throughout human history, there is no question in any structure of my mind who it would be. Freud S Seminal Volume Of Twentieth Century Cultural Thought Grounded In Psychoanalytic Theory, Now With A New Introduction By Christopher HitchensWritten In The Decade Before Freud S Death, Civilization And Its Discontents May Be His Most Famous And Most Brilliant Work It Has Been Praised, Dissected, Lambasted, Interpreted, And Reinterpreted Originally Published In , It Seeks To Answer Several Questions Fundamental To Human Society And Its Organization What Influences Led To The Creation Of Civilization Why And How Did It Come To Be What Determines Civilization S Trajectory Freud S Theories On The Effect Of The Knowledge Of Death On Human Existence And The Birth Of Art Are Central To His Work Of The Various English Translations Of Freud S Major Works To Appear In His Lifetime, Only Norton S Standard Edition, Under The General Editorship Of James Strachey, Was Authorized By Freud Himself This New Edition Includes Both An Introduction By The Renowned Cultural Critic And Writer Christopher Hitchens As Well As Peter Gay S Classic Biographical Note On Freud There s something unbelievable about Freud If he was some ancient Greek or Medieval thinker, his ideas might not seem as strange But the man was a contemporary of Albert Einstein, John Maynard Keynes, and F.D.R He lived through the Great Depression and died during World War II two events that continue to haunt the present day Yet his theories seem so remote from our positivistic era that it can be difficult to even take them seriously.Nonetheless, he remains one of the most influential thinkers of the 20th century In their diluted form, his ideas have pervaded our culture to the extent that we do not even realize that we are drawing on them His name is just as recognizable as Einstein s, or Darwin s Yet both of those thinker s ideas are still held in high repute , they established the entire paradigm for their fields Meanwhile, Freud s ideas are only taken seriously in the dark recesses of literary or cultural criticism.Pondering this, I came upon a realization, which I am sure many have had before Freud s system is a bizarro version of Christianity Instead of a soul experiencing the temptations of the body, we get the ego experiencing the temptations of the id Instead of Original Sin, we get the Oedipus Complex Instead of confession and atonement, we get psychotherapy Replace the Virgin Mother with the mother as an object of lust Replace the Heavenly Father with the father as an object of jealousy And replace Jesus with Freud.By now I m convinced that the erstwhile popularity of his ideas was a product of this confluence It is an entire secular religion His ideas are so appealing, that some people have become enthralled enough to apply them to nearly aspect of human life The whole sexual liberation movement drew inspiration from this sexually repressed Austrian Strange But I am rambling now, let me get to this book.It strikes me that Civilization and its Discontents is Freud s sequel to Nietzsche s The Genealogy of Morality The two works tackle nearly identical issues the origins of religion, of good and evil, and of the guilty conscience And both give historical answers Nietzsche believed that the guilty conscience was an outgrowth of the creditor debtor relationship Freud, on the other hand, believed that guilt arose as a result of a historical act of aggression towards a father But most psychologists nowadays, I suspect, would find it quixotic to look for a historical origin to an emotion.It seems hardly worth the time to criticize Freud s ideas, but here is just a bit When trying to grapple with something as abstract as a mind, it seems that thinkers resort to an analogy The central analogy of Freud s thinking is pneumatic He believes we are motivated by drives, which build up pressure when not satisfied These drives can be diverted and redirected, like a stream of water While this analogy seems viable when thinking about sexual desire or hunger, it is useless when thinking of questions like language acquisition Moreover, Freud places sexuality in the center of his system Yet this makes just as much sense as placing the urge to eat in the center of a theory of human nature Human behavior is complex Reducing it down to the satisfaction of one or two drives is beyond simplistic It s stupid.But enough of these criticisms let s look at the positives Freud was one of the first intellectuals though by no means the first to place the emotional life in the center of human nature As far back as Plato, philosophers have tended to think that rational theories were fundamental to our thinking Witness Socrates, asking logic chopping arguments about the nature of religious worship in Euthyphro, apparently oblivious to the emotional side of religion This tendency to see human life as attempts at rational explanations extended all the way down to Freud s day In The Golden Bough, the anthropologist James Frazer,a contemporary of Freud s, explained religion as a kind of proto science Compared with this, I think Freud s notion that religion is a satisfaction of an emotional need is a real insight.Not only that, but Freud made clear the extent to which self knowledge is almost impossible Much of our motivations, he pointed out, stem from unconscious sources While these motivations are not the river like drives that he posited, he was at least correct in his supposition that the brain s activities are not all conscious In my opinion, this was a definite advance over thinkers like Locke, Hume, or Kant, who believed that they could get to the bottom of human thinking simply via introspection.Regardless of the extent to which he was correct, Freud s influence is undeniable So It s worth the time to wade through his books, however bizarre they seem. the discrete joys of cultural pessimism This volume consists of two of Freud s essays Civilisation its discontents 1930 and the far shorterCivilised sexual morality modern nervous illness 1908.The latter essay is the simple one , it points out that conventional in turn of the century Vienna sexual morality is a cause of mental ill health and even when it isn t, the focus on marriage as the only socially acceptable forum for the expression of sexual love in practise causes frigidity in women while among men it produces the effect that citing Karl Krauscoition is only an inadequate surrogate for onanismp.147 and therefore disappointment and dissatisfaction in marriage which is meant to be the central social unit and unique source of interpersonal pleasures.In a wider sense we can see that mental illness can have a social component, and that in such cases it is society which is making us sick, if running off to some other society might offer a cure, Freud does not go so far as to suggest, although some have tried that with variable success I think from this I had a sense of how scandalous Freud was in his day, equally how far his vision of Viennese society repressed, sexual double standards, the scandal of people in pursuit of their own desires Colonel Redl, Egon Schiele, Alma Mahler is now our dominant vision that that society, how far that is fair, just, and reasonable I don t know The introduction points to the USA where apparently abstinence only education on questions of sexuality and sexual activity is apparently increasingly prevalent, something in the writer s opinion which will guarantee the continuing relevance of Freud as future generations will endure the same miseries as his contemporaries.Anyhow that was the younger Freud in 1908, making an effort to get his voice heard Civilisation its discontents is a very different piece, it is unhurried and self assured, there is no sense of urgency to save the world from muddled thinking, this is the voice of the man confident that he has a following and that there is some respect and acceptance of his vision, it is above all deeply pessimistic about society and culture, but in a surprise twist not about human history.Freud is a gregarious author which I had forgotten, but here as in Die Traumdeutung there is a reference to a friend and their experience in this case of how the friend s yoga practise gave them the Oceanic feeling which Freud imagines is the emotional experience that becomes rationalised into human religion But I sense in this not Freud the cultural critic out on a limb or two on his own, but the friendly Freud, the man in the convivial circle of his fellows.Reading this essay for the first time it struck me as significant that Freud and Marx were Jews, it is from the later Temple period of Judaism that a conception of history as purposive emerges, which historically is pretty unusual, it is the idea that history has meaning specifically one created by God History has a beginning and an end, and in the end God has decreed that there will be Peace, Justice and Good times, Freud and Marx both create secular versions of this, for Marx these ends will be achieved through social and economic developments for Freud through the interactions of basic human drives, he asserts that of the two primary forces one destructive and anti social, the other social bonding through love, that love will win through and humans will form a world community in which everybody is tied together in mutual re enforcing bonds of friendship Freud doesn t seem to quite believe himself, as he also sees the potential for humanity to self destruct in an orgy of mutual slaughter In an aside Freud looks at Communism, a flawed project in his view because for him tensions in human society don t come from an unequal division of property but from the psychological state of man There is a destructive drive that is in contention with a constructive drive view spoiler very much the view of Doestovesky s underground man desiring to throw a stone at the crystal palace hide spoiler Civilization and its Discontents is Freud s miniature opus It is a superficial masterpiece that stretches further than any of his other works he is reaching for an explanation for human nature in terms of the id ego superego structure of the individual as he exists in civilization For Freud, human beings are characterized by Eros Sex Drive and Thanatos Death Drive , which remain in opposition to one another This small book is filled with as many interesting ideas as any work of modern philosophy Freud adopts perhaps a bit hastily , a Nietzschean position with regard to the role of religion and institutions of social morality which curb and shape primordial human drives As a result, human beings, and civilizations as a whole remain unsatisfied and suffer from neuroses He concludes with a discussion of human aggression, which manifests itself in the form of communalized human aggression He wonders as to whether or not human beings will be able to overcome this drive It seems to me that this question remains the most important for human beings in the 21st century Will we be able to overcome our Thanatos and survive the destructive powers that we have created I suspect that Freud will be better remembered as a thinker and philosopher than as an analyst or doctor precisely because he asks the questions that remain relevant for civilization today, and are likely to remain imperative in the future. Studying psychology I never cared much for Sigmunds insights into the human psyche and dreams They seemed interesting from a cultural, maybe even literary or intellectual perspective but not from a scientific point of view His sociological ideas and writings however impressed me deeply in my student years I read this book cover to cover in two days One of the points that stuck was that humans not only have an innate drive to survive, but also to self destruct.Fascinating book and very well written I should reread.. The Price of Civilized SecurityCivilized man has traded in a portion of his chances of happiness for a certain measure of security Sometimes it is worth reading the original source of an idea that now should be taken for granted in our culture Not this time While there are a few gems in this work, I am mainly reminded why Freud is no longer taken seriously Here we receive his view of an entire civilization based on his experience with those few neurotic patients who can afford his services And have you noticed that he is rather obsessed with sex Freud deserves credit for recognizing a few fundamental truths Unconscious processes motivate much of our behaviour, and sex plays an important role And in this book, repression is an essential part of civilization It is in pursuing the details that he often departs from scientific method, and sometimes from reason itself.Religion and Universal LoveFreud was not exactly a fan of religionReligion interferes with this play of selection and adaptation by forcing on everyone indiscriminately its own path to the attainment of happiness and protection from suffering Its technique consists in reducing the value of life and distorting the picture of the real world by means of delusion and this presupposes the intimidation of the intelligence At this price, by forcibly fixing human beings in a state of psychical infantilism and drawing them into a mass delusion, religion succeeds in saving many of them from individual neurosis Religious people believe that they increase the value of life, and some religious practice may be based on sound psychological principles that Dr Freud ignores because they are not sex But he has a good point about universal loveIt is always possible to bind quite large numbers of people together in love, provided that others are left out as targets for aggression After St Paul had made universal brotherly love the foundation of his Christian community, the extreme intolerance of Christianity towards those left outside it was an inevitable consequence In modern society there is a new GodMan has become, so to speak, a god with artificial limbs He is quite impressive when he dons all his auxiliary organs, but they have not become part of him and still give him a good deal of trouble on occasion Let us also remember that modern man does not feel happy with his god like nature Death, Fire and Sex ObjectsWe are not happy because our tendency for violence and sex must be suppressed for civilization to work Writing after the shock of World War One, Freud invented a death instinct to explain why it happened This makes no evolutionary sense Steven Pinker in The Better Angels of Our Nature Why Violence Has Declined makes a much better case for the importance of suppressing our natural tendency to violence Unfortunately, Freud sees sex behind everything Seriously, this is his version of how humanity learned to use fireExtinguishing a fire by urinating on it was therefore like a sexual act performed with a man, an enjoyment of male potency in homosexual rivalry Whoever first renounced this pleasure and spared the fire was able to take it away with him and make it serve his purposes By damping down the fire of his own sexual excitement he had subdued the natural force of fire This great cultural conquest would thus be the reward for forgoing the satisfaction of a drive Moreover, it is as though the man had charged the woman with guarding the fire, now held prisoner on the domestic hearth, because her anatomy made it impossible for her to yield to such a temptation Silly me I thought it had something to do with fire being warm But along with the irresistible male urge to piss on every phallic flame he sees if I don t feel that way it must be because I am repressed , we can see a certain view of the relationship between men and womenHence, the male acquired a motive for keeping the female or to put it generally his sexual objects around him This may remind one of The Donald s locker room talk But Freud was a keen if sexually obsessed observer of human nature, and other parts of the book seem quite sensitive to the mainly sexual needs of women It is hard to tell here if that is his personal view, or he is guessing about attitudes in primitive society like towards the fire , or if it reflects what he learned from his male patients.Neurosis, Civilization and Free LoveWe are constantly reminded that the cause of neurosis is suppression of the sexual drive In the 1960s we tried to solve that problem with free love, as part of a general campaign against the perceived ills of civilization, or against civilization itself Freud himself knew better then to dismantle civilizationIt is contended that much of the blame for our misery lies with what we call our civilization, and that we should be far happier if we were to abandon it and revert to primitive conditions I say this is astonishing because, however one defines the concept of civilization, it is certain that all the means we use in our attempts to protect ourselves against the threat of suffering belong to this very civilization Good point I would add that one of those things that civilization tries to repress is violence, including violence against those women who are reduced to sex objects Maybe we should think first before we tear something down.Today we can do something conspicuously lacking in Freud s work look for evidence to test the hypothesis So does all that free love at least reduce neurosis It seems every university reports that today s liberated generation needs ever escalating mental health support This suggests that while some sexual freedom may beneficial, is not necessarily better.Sex as Distraction, Diversion and DopeWe are told there are there are three kinds of palliative measures to help us endure lifepowerful distractions, which cause us to make light of our misery, substitutive satisfactions, which diminish it, and intoxicants, which anaesthetize us to itIn other words, Distraction, Diversion and Dope I suppose in his sex starved society he never imagined sex itself filling these roles, especially the role of intoxicant Fuelled by unlimited pornography, sex has become, in the words of his fellow intellectual luminary, an opiate for the masses See The Brain That Changes Itself Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science for what a modern psychiatrist has to say about that.Let me suggest my own hypothesis that should, at least in principle, be testable An obsession with sex, as opposed it being part of a relationship between people, necessarily leads to an objectification of the partner, the meaning of Freud s sex objects When a person is seen as an object, the inhibition to using coercion to achieve the goal is reduced I am drawing a direct connection between sexual liberation and the result we now call rape culture , in contradiction of the popular ethic that anything goes as long as it is consensual.Something to Talk AboutI don t apologise for throwing my own opinions in here, because I see that as the only possible value of this book as a stimulus to discuss the role of repression in maintaining civilization, and in particular the consequences of too much or too little sexual repression I cannot recommend this book for any other purpose than to start such a discussion. This book helps explain one of life s enduring phenomena rage It explains why standing behind that scruffy, ponytailed, mustachioed gentleman in the checkout lane let s call him Gerard, for good measure , can trigger paroxysms of homicidal fury Something deep and ancient roils inside as you do a quick comparison Gerard, with his sensationally attractive girlfriend in tow, let s call her Melanie and you, with just you You stand there fronting a twitching half smile that conceals the throbbing urge to rip the man bun off his head with your bare hands Alas, the spell is broken you need to pay the cashier for those artisanal cucumbers, the ones you read about on that message board dedicated to wellness Later, sitting behind the wheel of your Hybrid, you shudder Where did that come from, you wonder The answer you re an animal, buddy That handsomely tailored Oxford button down only goes so far to hide the truth you re a bloodthirsty, sex crazed, status seeking ape Go on, if you dare, look inside yourself You ll see the truth Just try to keep your clothes on. This book deftly delineates the dilemma in our civic society, where the struggle between our ethics and animal instincts continue, and the prices we have paid in making our society safe and secure It rejoins what Victor Hugo and Tolstoy and Steinbeck show in their worksBut, most of all, I think it acutely depicts the fate of our judicial system, conceived by men who thought punishment would be the detriment to crime, but which ironically turned out to be the incitement to heinous crimes True, countries like Norway have understood the importance of humane treatment in restoration, as opposed to humiliation in confinement, but, in most countries, the old fashioned system still reigns, because it s the easiest to sleep in the status quo.Let s hope this will change someday.